The most effective method to Learn Pashto

1.      Understanding Pronunciation and Structure

Work on articulating the Pashto letter set

On the off chance that you can figure out how to articulate the letters of the letter set, you’ll have the option to sound out words you see (regardless of whether you understand what they mean). Penetrating articulation can likewise assist you with learning the script.[2]

  • Many letters in Pashto are articulated utilizing various pieces of your mouth and tongue, similar as other Indo-Iranian dialects. Nonetheless, Pashto likewise shares many sounds practically speaking with Indo-Aryan dialects (like Sanskrit). For instance, Pashto has retroflex consonants, which you articulate by twisting your tongue with the goal that the back tip of your tongue contacts the top of your mouth.
  • A video illustration on articulating the Pashto letters in order is accessible at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y5QZE9ew6eg.
  • Indiana College likewise has a printable PDF of Pashto letter set elocution accessible at http://www.indiana.edu/~celcar/letters in order/Pashto_Alphabet.pdf.

Focus on the pressure in words

 In Pashto, the syllable focused isn’t uniform. Stress can fall on any syllable of the word, and frequently is utilized to recognize implications between words that would some way or another be identical.[3]

  • For instance, the word áspa (with weight on the primary syllable) signifies “female horse,” while the word aspá (weight on the last syllable) signifies “spotted fever.” You would have no desire to get these confounded in the event that you were bargaining with a nearby for a pony to ride through the open country.

Put the item before the action word

Especially assuming you communicate in English or another European language, typical word request in Pashto sentences might give you some difficulty. Regularly, Pashto sentences follow subject-object-action word order.[4]

  • For instance, the Pashto word for “dai” is the Pashto word for “is.” If you needed to say “this is a book,” you would agree “Dā Ketāb dai.” Take a gander at the word request – dai comes last.
  • Other Indo-Aryan and Indo-Iranian dialects utilize this request, as well as a few Asian dialects. On the off chance that you are know all about any of those, this specific part of Pashto presumably won’t be an issue for you.

Change action words and things to suit the setting of the sentence

While there are no articles in Pashto, things are profoundly changed to reflect orientation, number, and case. Action words are changed to demonstrate tense, voice, perspective, and mood.[5]

•             In Pashto, the perspective (great, meaning it is a finished activity, or flawed, meaning it is a moderate or consistent activity) is pretty much as significant as tense.

Peruse Pashto script from right to left.

wSimilarly as with Arabic and numerous other Indo-Iranian dialects, Pashto is perused right to left, as opposed to left to right as English and other European dialects are. On the off chance that you’re curious about different dialects that read along these lines, it can take some getting utilized to.[6]

•             At the point when you begin rehearsing content and composing the letter set, start beginning the right half of your page and moving left, as opposed to the reverse way around.

•             Assuming you’re composing, it can likewise assist with putting resources into note pads that are bound on the right side as opposed to the left.

2.         Saying Straightforward Expressions

Perceive acquired words.

Pashto imparts a broad jargon to other Indo-Iranian dialects, Urdu, and Arabic (because of the impact of Islam on Pashtun societies). In the event that you know any of these dialects, you probably definitely know how to say various words in Pashto.[7]

•             While discussing science, innovation, legislative issues, and the military, you will likewise experience many words that are acquired from English, including words, for example, atum (molecule), siyāns (science), and bam (bomb).[8]

•             Pashto even has words acquired from Greek, attributable to the Greek occupation in the third century BC of present-day Afghanistan.

•             The assignment of retaining each word is just excessively overwhelming and at times counterproductive for the two amateurs and high level students. Attempt to handle 20-50 words each example, day, or week. Work on the most fundamental and general words first, then, at that point, continue on toward the more unambiguous ones.

Welcome others by saying “as-salaamu’ alaykum” (ah sa-LAAM-uu ah-LEH-kum).

This hello is a standard Arabic hello normal among Muslims, which in a real sense signifies “harmony arrive.” The expression has been brought into Pashto and is regularly utilized instead of “hello.”[9]

•             “Khe chare” (KHE chaa-reh) is a more casual approach to saying “hi,” like “howdy” or “hello” in English.

•             In the event that somebody says “as-salaamu’ alaykum” as far as you might be concerned, the appropriate reaction is “walaykum salaam” (wa-LEH-kum sa-laam), which basically signifies “and furthermore with you.”

Say “Ta sanga yee?” (TSENG-ga yeh) to inquire “How are you?”

 After you’ve welcomed somebody, posing this inquiry is normally regular. Assuming they ask you first, you can answer “Za kha sweet potato, mannana, ta sanga yee?” (za KHE yem, mama NE-na, TSENG-ga yeh) This basically signifies “I’m getting along admirably, and you?”[10]

•             You can likewise say “k’he yem, manena,” and that signifies “fine, much obliged.”

Tell the individual you just know a little Pashto

. When the underlying good tidings are far removed, you probably need to allow your discussion to accomplice realize that you don’t really communicate in Pashto well overall. Say “ze pe puk’hto samē khaberē ne shem kawulay,” and that signifies “I can’t communicate in Pashto well.”[12]

•             On the off chance that they inquire as to whether you communicate in Pashto (“Aya ta dad pakhto khabarey kawalai shey?”), you could answer “slack,” and that signifies “Indeed, a tad.”

•             On the off chance that your way to express the underlying good tidings was solid, the individual could begin addressing you in quick fire Pashto. You can contribute “za na poheegum,” and that signifies “I don’t have any idea,” and afterward dial them back by saying “karaar khabaree kawa” (if it’s not too much trouble, talk all the more leisurely).

Stay on your best possible behavior with considerate words and expressions.

 Saying please and thank you will go quite far when you are simply learning Pashto and attempting to banter with local speakers or explore a region where the language is spoken.[13]

•             “Mehrabai wakrey” (meh-ra-baa-NEE wu-kei) is “please” in Pashto. You can likewise say “lotfan.”

•             For “thank you,” you can say by the same token “manana” or “tashakor.” On the off chance that somebody expresses one of these words to you, answer “har kala rasha,” which basically signifies “any time.”

•             For “excuse me” or “Please accept my apologies,” say “bakhena ghwaarum”(ba-KHE-na ghwaa-rrem).

3.         Using Free Web-based Assets

Access assets from the Guard Language Organization.

 The US Division of Safeguard runs the Protection Language Organization Unknown dialect Community. The site has various materials for learning Pashto, which you can look through at http://www.dliflc.edu/assets/items/.

•             While these assets are fundamentally outfitted towards military staff positioned in districts where Pashto is spoken, there are additionally early on materials that are suitable for any fledgling.

•             You will likewise find assets that can acclimate you with the way of life and customs in regions where Pashto is spoken. Understanding the way of life might assist you with understanding the language better.

Utilize the CeLCAR modules.

 Indiana College has online Pashto examples accessible for nothing at http://www.indiana.edu/~celcar/middle of the road/pashtointer.html. To take the examples, you should initially enroll for a free record.

•             There are 10 modules that incorporate sound and text, as well as certain activities.

Watch reports from Afghanistan on the web.

The Afghanistan TV station Ashna has a YouTube channel where you can watch many short news recordings in Pashto to rehearse your perception as well as find out about issues of significance in the region.[14]

•             To watch or buy into the channel, go to https://www.youtube.com/client/VOAAFGHANISTAN.

•             You can likewise scroll related channels to find other YouTube directs in Pashto you can look for nothing.

Attempt the Starting Pashto course book to learn Pashto script.

The US Division of Instruction’s Middle for Applied Phonetics made a starting course reading for showing both oral and composed Afghan Pashto. This course reading is accessible online free of charge at https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED364085.pdf.[15]

•             While the reading material is fairly dated, it can assist you with getting a grip on the fundamentals of Pashto script, which hasn’t changed since the course book was last modified in 1993.

•             The course book additionally incorporates discoursed and readings, jargon, and syntax examples. You can download the sound documents that are intended to go with the reading material for nothing at http://web.archive.org/web/20061212195024/languagelab.bh.indiana.edu/pashto.html.

Partake in Pashto language gatherings.

 There are various discussions and web-based entertainment networks online that you can use to peruse, watch recordings, and converse with local speakers and individual understudies the same.

•             There is likewise a Pashtun discussion on Reddit at https://www.reddit.com/r/Pashtun/. A considerable lot of these posts are in English and connect with news and data about regions where Pashto is spoken, however there are likewise posts and discussions in Pashto.

•             Local talking individuals and further developed and experienced students are continuously ready to help on various language discussions. You can likewise profit from others’ inquiries and reactions.

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